能源/旅游/交通/矿物质

 

The energy sector of the Republic of Tajikistan

Key indicators

General potential reserves is 527 billion kWh per year (the eighth in the world), 4% of the worldwide hydro power potential.

Annual electricity generation is 16.5 billion kWh (4-5% of the potential reserves)

Power system capacity is 5190 MW (4872 MW is the hydroelectric share or 94%; CHP is 318 MW or 6%)

The design capacity of Rogun HPP is 3600 MW/13 billion kWh per year.

Development of the energy sector –15.2% of the budget expenditures (2012)

Excess of power in the summer is 3-5 billion kWh

Electricity shortage in winter is 2.5 billion kWh

Tariff for the population is 2.32 U.S. cents / 1 kWh.

Tariff for the industry is 5.61 U.S. cents /1 kWh.

Export of electricity in 2013 is about 1 billion kWh /34 million USD

Coal reserves – 4.5 billion tons

Coal production in 2013 is about 500,000 tons.

Hydropower

Tajikistan endowed with rich hydropower resources, hydro potential is estimated to be 527 billion kWh per year. In technical terms, the waterpower resources of Tajikistan have good prospects for the development and consist of 317 billion kWh per year of which only 4-5% has been used so far. Tajikistan’s hydropower potentialranks No.8 after China, Russia, the USA, Brazil, Zaire, India and Canada. Tajik energy basis is hydropower – over 95 percent. Tajikistan’s hydropower potentialis three times higher than the current electricity consumption throughout Central Asia. The effective use of these resources will allow the region to be provided with inexpensive and green power. The main hydropower potential is concentrated in the basins of the Vakhsh, the Pyanj, the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya and the Zarafshan.

Tajikistan power system is 5190 MW; the share of the hydro power plants accounts for 93.9% of the total installed capacity. The share of thermal power plants is 318 MW or about 6.1%. Annual electricity generation in the Tajik energy system, consisting mainly of hydro power plants, is 16.5 billion kWh.It should be noted that more than 98% of electricity in Tajikistan is generated by hydropower plants, including 97% – by large and medium HPP.

In winter periods, the country experiences significant deficit sin electricity (2.2 – 2.5 billion kWh). For this reason, Tajikistan had to introduce limitations, which affect primarily rural residents comprising not less than 70% of the total population. Because of restrictions of power delivery in rural areas the annual loss of farm production is about 30%.

The power supply is most reliable during the summer period, as the surplus of energy is between 3 and 7.3 billion kWh. The surplus of water leads to idle discharge, which is seen as a huge potential loss of energy. Depending on annual hydrological conditions, the economic e economic loss averages between $90 and $225 million per annum.

Currently, there are 11 large and medium hydropower plants in the Republic of Tajikistan and nearly 300 small hydro power plants with total capacity of 132 MW. In 2009 we adopted the updated program for the construction of small hydropower plants. The program envisages the construction of 189 sHPPs with total capacity of 103.6 MW. More than 60 small hydropower plants with total capacity of 47 MW were built in 2010-2011and this trend continues. Preliminary estimates show that construction of more than 900 sHPPs with capacity of 100-3000 kW in the tributaries of the rivers in the mountainous regions of the country is technically and economically feasible. According to the experts’ estimate energy use of small rivers can meet the electricity demand of about 500-600 thousand people living in remote regions of the country by 50-70%, and in some cases – by 100%.

In 2011 the South-North power line that allows the country’s national grid to be independent went into operation. All this greatly increased the possibility of physical access to energy services of the entire Tajikistan population. Today the electricity tariff of 2.32 U.S.cents/1 kWh has a social orientation for the population in the Republic of Tajikistan. The state partially subsidizes the household electricity tariffs increasing the electricity tariff for all other consumers. The tariff for industrial consumers is 5.61 per 1 kWh, which is 2.4 times higher than the rate for the population. In addition, the Government subsidizes annual electricity consumption of low-income households from the republican budget.

With total revenues (10,160,600 thousand TJS) of the State Budget of the Republic of Tajikistan in 2012, 1.54 billion TJS or 15.2% of the total budget of the country was allocated for the development of the fuel and energy sector. Rising scale of expenditures for the fuel and energy sector has preserved in 2013 (1,712 billion TJS); more than 1.8 billion TJS has been planned for the sector in 2014.

Coal mining

Besides hydropower resources Tajikistan has substantial coal with estimated reserves of 4.5 billion tons. By the end of 2013 the country’s mining operations produced about 500 tons of coal, which is twice as much as according to the plan.162 industrial enterprises in the republic have operated on solid fuel; the total annual demand exceeds 200 tons of coal.Active coal mining is implemented in coal fields of Tajikistan: “Shurob”, “Nazarailok”, “Fon-Yagnob”, “Zidi” and other coal fields. Their reserves are more than 100 million tons of coal.

Alternative energy

The climate of Tajikistan is very favorable for the use of solar energy. On average there are 280-330 sunny days per year, and total solar radiation intensity varies during the year between 280 and 925 MJ/m2 in the foothills, and between 360 and 1120 MJ/m2 in the highlands. Use of available solar energy in Tajikistan can meet 10-20% of energy demand. Estimated potential of solar energy in Tajikistan is about 25 billion kWh / year. This potential is not used, if not to take into account some of its use for water heating.

There is small wind energy potential, but its use as a complementary main hydropower is justified in some regions. There is small wind energy potential, but its use as a complementary main hydropower justified in some regions. The strongest winds are observed in mountainous areas, where the landscape of the country finds the maximum wind speed and flows, as well as in the Sughd region and the Rasht Valley. Mean wind speed in these regions is about 5-6 m/sec.

The tourism sector in Tajikistan

Key indicators of tourism of the Republic of Tajikistan

Location: Central Asia

Area: 142.6 square kilometers, mountains cover 93%

It borders Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan

Climate: dry continental, with over 300 sunny days a year

Water Resources: about 1000 rivers, 2,000 lakes, 8,000 glaciers

Cultural and historical heritage: part of the Great Silk Road, a site of ancient settlement “Sarazm” and National Park are included in the List of World Heritage (UNESCO)

Tourism activities: climbing, mountain sports, skiing, international hunting, ethnographic, medical

Visa Requirements: for citizens of 80 countries the tourist visa is issued on arrival at the international airport in Dushanbe and Khujand

International airlines: Turkish Airlines, Fly Dubai, China South Airlines, Kam Air, Osmon Air, Utair, Ural Airlines, Sibir Airlines

International hotel operators: Hyatt Regency, Sheraton Hotels, Serena Hotels

The territory of Tajikistan from the most ancient times lay on the important historical routes of the Silk Road, connecting the East and the West. Country in the international trade and cultural exchange linking of old possessions of Bactria – Tokharistan (Chaganian, Shumon, Ahorun, Kubodien, Vakhsh, Hutal, Rasht, Kumed, Darvoz, Vanj, Rushan and Wakhan), Soghd, Istaravshan (Ustrushan) and Ferghana with India, Afghanistan and China. The Silk Road was not only the exchange of goods between the East and the West, but also ideas, cultures and people.

Modern Tajikistan is a mountainous country with the altitudes varies from 300 to 7,495 meters above the sea level. 93% of the territory are mountain ranges relating to Pamirs, Hissar-Alay and Tien-Shan mountain systems. The mentioned ranges are divided by rich and fertile lands of Ferghana, Zerafshan, Vakhsh and Hissar valleys. Complicated relief and big amplitude of mountain system’s high caused exceptional diversity of flora and fauna.

Tajikistan is a country of high peaks, strong glaciers, swift rapid rivers, unrepeatable in terms of beauty lakes, unique flora and rare animals. Mountainous, floor landscape determines originality and peculiarity of Tajikistan’s nature, riches of its forms called for life by diversity of climatic zones. In the republic it is possible during the one and half hour fly from heat of Vakhsh valley and get to arctic cold of everlasting snows of the Pamirs. On the basis of the existing 13 state nature reserves and sanctuaries “Zorkul”, “Romit”, “Mozkul”, “Dashti Jum”, historical and natural park “Shirket” and the Tajik National Park the unique ecology, landscapes and natural monuments in its original form are preserved.

Priority modes for international tourism in the country are considered to be:

  • climbing, mountain sports and ecotourism;

  • rafting, paragliding, skiing, ski mountaineering;

  • international hunting;

  • historical, cultural and ethnographic tourism;

  • spa treatment and rest.

Tajikistan is the richest country in reserves of fresh water resources. Almost half of the water resources of the Central Asian region are formed in mountainous rivers, lakes and glaciers of the country. Tajikistan is ranked eighth in the world for its hydropowerengineering reserves. Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast of the Republic is especially very rich in lakes that have very different origins. The largest of them are the lakes of Karakul, Zorkul, Rangkul, Shorkul, Bulunkul and Lake Sarez, which was formed in 1911when an earthquake created a natural dam. In general, in the Pamir region at altitudes from 3200 to 5000 meters there are 1450 lakes and 220rivers, or 83% of the total area of lakes in Tajikistan.The largest lake in the Pamirs, a unique salt Lake Karakul, is located at an altitude of 3914 meters above the sea level. The lake has a maximum depth of 236 meters. It is considered that the lake appeared during the ice age and the bottom of the lake and several of its shores for many kilometers are covered by permafrost.

In Tajikistan there are nearly 200 sources of mineral and thermal waters, on the basis of which spa tourism is developed. The most famous of them are resort “Khoja Obi Garm,” resort “Bahoriston”, sanatoriums “Shaambary”, “Obi Garm,” “Zumrad”, “Havatag”, “Yavroz”, “Kaltuch”, “Garm-Chashma“. In the carbonated hot mineral springs of sanatoriums Garm-chashma”, “Bashor” and “Shahdara” travertine-lime sinter deposits are formed. They are especially beautiful at the spring Garm-chashma, located 35 km from Khorog.

Handmade unique monument of nature in the Pamirs is Pamir Botanical Garden located at an altitude of 2320m above the sea level near the Khorog city. This garden is on the background of barren slopes is the real green miracle, which collected more than 20,000 plants from all continents. Among them are rare and unusual specimens of plants, as Amur cork tree, cork, black Austrian pine and a unique collection of roses with pure tones and incomparable flavor.

Man-made unique monument of nature in the Pamirs is the Pamir Botanical Garden, located at an altitude of 2320m above the sea level near the city of Khorog. Against a background of barren slopes, this garden is a real green miracle, where more than 20,000 plants from all the continents are collected. he rare and unusual specimens of plants, as Amur velvet, cork tree, black Austrian pine and a unique collection of roses with the purest colors and incomparable smell are among them. Fan Mountains are particularly popular among the tourists and mountaineers, which are located between Zerafshan and Hissar ranges from Kshtutdari to Fandaria. Today, Fan Mountains are the most accessible for tourists among the all high mountains of the country. In these mountains, mirror blue-green water – Lake Iskanderkul is located, which is the largest lake of Fan Mountains, located in the north of Tajikistan. It is widely spread out at an altitude of 2200 meters. Here, tourists can watch the stars twinkle and mist rising from the lake surface. On the shore of a lake, within 160 km from Dushanbe, a tourist base “Iskanderkul” is located. This road is crossed by tourists in cars through the amazing gorges of Fandarya, Yagnob and Iskander darya. he mountains around seem to be multi-colored, as they are dominated by bluish, red and purple hues. Iskandar darya gorges are sometimes named as ravines of colored rocks and the forces of wind have turned them into fanciful walls and castles.

A lot of interesting expects travelers in the south of Tajikistan. One of the oldest cities of Central Asia, Kulyab celebrated its 2700 anniversary in 2006; it became a milestone for the country. In forest thicknesses close to Baljuvan district, Tajik archaeologists have unearthed stone tools, the most ancient one found in Central Asia – their age is 850 thousand years. A unique historical and architectural monument is a mausoleum of prominent philosopher and religious figure of the ХIV century Mir Said Ali Hamadoni in Kulyab, where many followers honoring his Sufi teachings perform a religious pilgrimage. Moreover, in this region there are the mausoleums Shakiki Balkhi (IX century), Schoh Nematulloi Wali (XIV century), Sulton Uvayci Karani (VII century), which will become revelation for many people.

Today there is a competitive tourist complex with more than 75 tourism enterprises in Tajikistan. In order to promote international tourism in the country, the government decided to simplify the visa regime; currently the documents to enter the country shall be issued within three days.Pursuant to the decisions adopted by the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan to declare Varzob, Baljuvon Romit regions of the country the areas of spa treatment, recreation and tourism promotes to the gradual revival of the tourism industry. More than 65% of sanatoriums and tourist facilities have been renovated on the country; about 35 private tourist and recreation areas have been built.

Transportation sector of the Republic of Tajikistan

During the period of its independence, the Republic of Tajikistan continues advancement its economic infrastructure, including transportation sector which has determining character in economic development along with improvement of living standards and reduction of poverty.

Development of transport sector will foster support of domestic and foreign trade which stands one of the main tasks in enhancing economic relations, entrepreneurship and international transit.

In turn, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan since the early years of its independence has made main focus on overcoming communication deadlock and building transit channels through our country. The strategy of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan on overcoming communication deadlock was announced in 2010 in annual address of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan to Majlisi Oli – the Parliament of the Republic of Tajikistan.

The strategy includes two main points:

First – building integrated transport network in the country and its connection with international transport corridors.

Second – accession and ratification by the Republic of Tajikistan international conventions and agreements related to transportation.

The strategy of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan in overcoming communication deadlock includes construction and rehabilitation large parts of roads, for instance, highway Kulob-Khorog-Kulma-Karokurum (Shohon-Zigar and Shkev-Zigar), Dushanbe-Kurgan-Tube-Kulob, Dushanbe-Chanoқ, Vahdat- Chirgatol-Saritosh (the border with Kyrgyz Republic), Dushanbe-Tursunzade (border with Republic of Uzbekistan), Aini-Penjikent (border with Republic of Uzbekistan) and opening new tunnels Ozodi, Istiklol, Shahriston and Chormagzak.

For today Tajikistan became one of transport corridors in the region connected with neighboring countries in four directions with newly build railroads, highways, tunnels and bridges.

During last decade 23 public – funded investment projects worth nearly 3,2 billion somoni have been realized throughout the country over the last ten years for the purpose of breaking a communication isolation and opening routes to world maritime ports.

As a result of an implementation of these projects and actions undertaken in this direction, 1650 kilometers of motor-roads were built and renovated, as well as 109 bridges and 27 kilometers of tunnels have been constructed and brought into operation.

11 government investment projects totaling 5,5 billion somoni are presently being implemented in the field of transport.

Reconstruction and rehabilitation of roads continue, as well as construction and restoration of Ayni-Panjakent-Tursunzoda-Dushanbe highway, Kulob-Qalai Khumb, construction of a modern terminal at Dushanbe International Airport and the railway line Dushanbe – Kurgantube (Vahdat – Yovon section) and Kurgantube-Nizhniy Panj should be carried out by 2015.

In addition, construction of alternative roads requires that the Government of the country should expand a scope of economic integration and take necessary measures in the framework of regional organizations to integrate with international communication networks and form new networks which would meet modern standards.

To this end, we continue taking necessary, effective measures related to the implementation of the railway project Tajikistan – Turkmenistan – Afghanistan which may become an important factor in the economic development of Tajikistan and other countries of the region.

A Memorandum of Understanding on Construction of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan Railway was signed on the 21st of March this year, during the visit of the President of the country to Ashgabat, Turkmenistan for the participation in the International Navruz Festival.

In addition to the abovementioned, to create a complete internal transport network and to provide output for all regions of the country on the international highway, on the basis of expert internal and external review, a program of rehabilitation and reconstruction of these roads until 2025 has been developed. This program takes into account the socio-economic benefits of all aspects and will reduce the cost of transport services.According to this program, more than four thousand kilometers of roads and 576 bridges in the amount of 4,4 billion somoni should be constructed and renovated.

Taking into account the specifics of the geographic location of the country, in Tajikistan, work continues on the development of transport infrastructure, creation of an enabling environment for the use of transport routes, which in the near future will have the transcontinental nature, linking Asia and Europe.
It should be noted that in the years of independence, the President and the Government of Tajikistan have paid special attention to the sphere of transport: 39 agreements with nine CIS countries and seven countries in Central Asia and Europe, also 27 agreements with 7 international organizations have been signed.

The Republic of Tajikistan has joined officially 9 International Conventions and Agreements:

  • International Convention for the Coordination of monitoring the transport of goods across borders

  • International Convention in traffic

  • International Convention on road warning signs

  • International Convention for the delivery and storage of goods

  • International Customs Convention on the Carriage of Goods by TIR Carnet

  • European Agreement on the transport and delivery of dangerous goods by road

  • An interstate agreement on perishable food and special vehicles for the delivery of such goods

  • European Agreement concerning the activities of service vehicles on the international highways

  • Agreement on implementation of safety for vehicles and spare parts which are used in them

The Republic of Tajikistan is a country with a future transit opportunities associated with international transport corridors, such as EurAsEC, TRACECA, CAREC, the European Union, in which Tajikistan is willing to continue history attitude as the reliable delivery of transit funds.

On 17-18 September, 2013 jubilee meeting of Intergovernmental Commission of Organization of transport corridor between countries of Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRAСECA) has been held in Dushanbe along with High Level International Conference on the theme “Development of the potential of Central Asia on the period till 2023”. These events according to their program were prepared and organized jointly with Secretariat of TRAСECA and International Road Union. Participants from member states and observers namely Afghanistan, Armenia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Iran, as well as representatives of international organizations European Commission, OSCE, SOC, ECO, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and others took part in the events.

Intergovernmental Commission reviewed issues of development of international transport corridor TRAСECA for the period of last years, implementation of the strategy of the Commission until 2015 and elaborated Action Plan for 2013-2015. Participants discussed the prospects of future actions towards development of transportation system of TRAСECA for 2013-2014 which will run under Chairmanship of the Republic of Tajikistan.All sides agreed that efficient utilization of potential possibilities of member states of TRAСECA will foster increasing competitiveness, safety and assist to building multifunctional transport system, as well as, attracting investments on contemporary and logistical base.

The transformations are also implemented in the field of civil aviation, as well as space for free competition and the market for air services for both domestic and foreign airlines is created in the country.Active work is being conducted to improve service and enhance the role of local carriers in the international market: there are all prerequisites for work in this direction. Local carriers of Tajikistan -Somon Air, Tajik Air, East Air and foreign air companies operating in Tajikistan are Turkish Airlines, Fly Dubai, China South Airlines, Kam Air, Osmon Air, Utair, Ural Airlines, Sibir Airlines. Together they operate regular flights to over 20 destinations to 11 countries abroad constantly increasing the number of destinations.